Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Relative to non-abusive mothers, abusive mothers produced less prototypical angry facial expressions, and less prototypical angry, happy, and sad vocal expressions. However, atypical emotional environments can result in emotion-processing deficiencies that may place children at risk for later development of socioemotional and behavioural difficulties Pollak, These mothers have also been found to produce less recognisable facial expressions relative to nonabusive mothers Camras et al. As a potential consequence of being raised in an abusive environment, physically abused children show social and emotional processing difficulties.
Mothers' responses to infants' facial expressions of sadness, anger, and physical distress
Face time: here's how infants learn from facial expressions
Vanessa LoBue does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Faces and facial expressions have a special power over us as human beings. While friendly faces make us feel warm and fuzzy, those of our opponents evoke fear or even anger. So, when do we as kids learn to recognize faces and facial expressions? And what lessons can be learned by parents whose facial signals carry a massive amount of information for infants? Newborns show a distinct preference for the faces of their mothers, only hours after they are born. Decades of research from many different labs suggest that faces are quite special for infants right from birth.
Facial expressions of emotion in mother-infant interaction
Face movements of infants 2 months of age when they are interacting with their mothers give evidence both for innate representation of the mother as a partner in communication and for an emotional system that evaluates her expressions and regulates their interpersonal contact. Although the facial neuro-motor system is immature in infancy, it can generate many expressions that compare closely with those by which adults transmit emotions and control engagements and relationships. It also expresses rudiments of special motivation for speaking. Even newborns show clear evidence of organized facial expressions defining distinct communicative states that respond to maternal care.
It was hypothesized the mothers' predictions of their caregiving interventions would be differentially influenced by infants' facial expressions of sadness, anger, and physical distress. Mothers viewed slides of infants whose facial displays had first been objectively classified with the Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Coding System Izard, Mothers imagined their infants showing similar expressions while scaling their own tendencies to respond with a number of specific caregiving and socializing interventions and affective reactions.