Embryonic and fetal development are the result of a complex series of well orchestrated events. When properly accomplished, the outcome is a healthy neonate. Errors in the sequential steps of development may be followed by:. When a developmental disruption results in a deviation from normal that is present or apparent at birth, the defect is said to be congenital. Other developmental defects may not become apparent until later in life, and although the disruptive event occurred before birth, the defect is not strictly classified as congenital. Although the event or agent resulting in disrupted development remains undefined for many recognizable congenital conditions, technologic advances in the field of teratology have identified an increasing number of specific genetic, environmental, and infectious agents as etiologic determinants of certain cases of defective fetal development.
Congenital and Inherited Anomalies in Animals
Congenital and Inherited Anomalies in Animals - Generalized Conditions - Veterinary Manual
Thirteen anomalous calves with clefts of the face were morphologically examined, and craniofacial skeletons were studied in detail. According to the type and site of the cleft, four groups could be distinguished: median cleft lip and jaw CLJ ; median cleft lip, jaw, and palate CLJP ; lateral CLJ; and cleft palate CP , including unilateral and bilateral type. Craniofacial skeletal abnormalities were observed in several bones at the roof, wall, and floor of the nasal cavity and at the boundary portion between the nasal and cranial cavities. Fissure formation at the cranial sutures, partial absence of the nasal process of the incisive bone, and opening of the bony palate were characteristic changes in median CLJ and CLJP, lateral CLJ, and CP, respectively. Furthermore, various associated changes were recognized in the median and paramedian skeletal elements of the face and other organs. The morphological changes of craniofacial skeletons with various types of clefts of the face depended on the site and degree of the cleft formation and reflected developmental errors of the facial embryonic segments.
Craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in anomalous calves with clefts of the face
Skip to content Ontario. Explore Government. Congenital defects can cause abortion or be present at time of birth. They are uncommon but do occur in most breeds of cattle.
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