A spermatozoon is a male germ cell capable of fertilizing an oocyte and carries genetic information for determining the sex of the offspring. It comprises autosomes and an X X spermatozoa or a Y chromosome Y spermatozoa. The origin and maturation of both X and Y spermatozoa are the same, however, certain differences may exist. Previous studies proposed a substantial difference between X and Y spermatozoa, however, recent studies suggest negligible or no differences between these spermatozoa with respect to ratio, shape and size, motility and swimming pattern, strength, electric charge, pH, stress response, and aneuploidy. Moreover, recent proteomic and genomic studies have identified a set of proteins and genes that are differentially expressed between X and Y spermatozoa. Therefore, the difference in DNA content might be responsible for the differential expression of certain genes and proteins between these cells.
Organization of Chromosomes During Spermatogenesis and in Mature Sperm
Sperm - Wikipedia
Type A spermatogonia serve as a stem cell population in the testis. They replenish the cell line Type B spermatogonia which undergo meiosis to form the spermatozoa. Note that the spermatogonium pictured is diploid, containing 46 total chromosomes, or 23 pairs. Of these, 22 pairs are autosomes and one pair is a pair of sex chromosomes. Since the individual is male, the pair of sex chromosomes consists of one X chromosme derived from the individual's mother and one Y chromosome derived from the individual's father. Note that the primary spermatocyte, which is a daughter of the spermatogonium contains the diploid number of chromosomes
New Biological Insights on X and Y Chromosome-Bearing Spermatozoa
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The mature sperm cell spermatozoa is 0. It consists of a head, body and tail. The head is covered by the ac cap and contains a nucleus of dense genetic material from the 23 chromosomes. It is attached from the neck to the body containing mitochondria that supply the energy for the sperm's activity. The tail is made of protein fibers that contract on alternative sides, giving a characteristic wavelike movement that drives the sperm through the seminal fluid, which also supplies additional energy.