Sperm cells are gametes sex cells that are produced in the testicular organ gonad of male human beings and animals. Like the female gamete oocyte , sperm cells carry a total of 23 chromosomes that are a result of a process known as meiosis. In both animals and human beings, among many other organisms, these cells are involved in the sexual mode of reproduction which involves the interaction of male and female gametes. The general morphology of sperm cells consists of the following parts:. Before looking at the structure and function of sperm cells, it's important to understand the process involved in their production spermatogenesis.
New Biological Insights on X and Y Chromosome-Bearing Spermatozoa
A Sperm Cell or Spermatozoa
NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science; In most species, there are just two types of gamete , and they are radically different. The egg is among the largest cells in an organism, while the sperm spermatozoon , plural spermatozoa is often the smallest. The egg and the sperm are optimized in opposite ways for the propagation of the genes they carry.
Ultramorphologic Characteristics of Human Sperm Cells
Sperm is the male reproductive cell , or gamete , in anisogamous forms of sexual reproduction forms in which there is a larger, female reproductive cell and a smaller, male one. Animals produce motile sperm with a tail known as a flagellum , which are known as spermatozoa , while some red algae and fungi produce non-motile sperm cells, known as spermatia. Sperm cells form during the process known as spermatogenesis , which in amniotes reptiles and mammals takes place in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. The spermatocytes then undergo meiosis , reducing their chromosome number by half, which produces spermatids.
A spermatozoon is a male germ cell capable of fertilizing an oocyte and carries genetic information for determining the sex of the offspring. It comprises autosomes and an X X spermatozoa or a Y chromosome Y spermatozoa. The origin and maturation of both X and Y spermatozoa are the same, however, certain differences may exist. Previous studies proposed a substantial difference between X and Y spermatozoa, however, recent studies suggest negligible or no differences between these spermatozoa with respect to ratio, shape and size, motility and swimming pattern, strength, electric charge, pH, stress response, and aneuploidy.